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Will appear in Moscow street Kuindzhi and Bilibin20 December 2016Will appear in Moscow street Kuindzhi and Bilibin

This will happen in 2017

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The bridge will connect the Park and the promenade will be a unique viewing platform.

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Call one of the capital's squares

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A gaze through the centuries


Moscow’s history goes back for centuries.  In fact, settlements existed in the location of the present day capital during the Middle Ages.  However, the exact date of the city’s founding is unknown.  It is first mentioned in the Hypatian Chronicle: “On April 4, 1147, Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy received his friends and allies in a town called Moscov.”  With this date used as the official birthday of the capital, its 850th anniversary was celebrated in 1997.  

Located at the convergence of trading routes, Moscow became the center of an independent principality in the XIII century.  Daniel Alexandrovich, son of Alexander Nevsky, became the founder of the dynasty that ruled first the Moscow principality and then all of Rus by the end of the XVI century.  Although during the XIII-XIV centuries, the city’s growth was interrupted by a Mongol invasion, the Black Plague, and Khan Tokhtamysh’s raid, Moscow nonetheless became one of the economic, political, religious, and cultural centers of Rus.  Prince Ivan Kalita built the new Moscow Kremlin, and during Dmitry Donskoy’s reign its oak construction was refurbished using white stone.  

By the end of the XV century under Ivan III the Great, the majority of Russian lands united around Moscow and the newly rebuilt Kremlin.  In the following century, Ivan the Great’s grandson, Ivan IV the Terrible, first declared himself no longer just the Prince, but the Tsar of Moscow and all of Rus (from the Latin word “Caesar,” meaning emperor).  In 1589, the Patriarchate was established in Moscow. 

Having lived through the Time of Troubles in the early XVII century, Moscow was the capital of an enormous state during the rule of the first tsars of the Romanov Dynasty.  This is exactly the place that Peter I the Great, the first Emperor of Russia (beginning in 1721), spent his childhood.  Although Peter I moved the capital to St. Petersburg, Moscow remained the location of coronation, or in the words of A.S. Pushkin “a queen-dowager”.  Napoleon Bonaparte set his sights on Moscow as the ancient capital, hoping that by capturing Moscow, he could conquer all of Russia.  However, Moscow proved an insurmountable obstacle, ultimately protecting the entire country during Napoleon’s invasion in 1812.  

After the revolutionary events of the beginning of the XX century, Moscow was renamed as the capital.  The image of the city underwent many changes, losing much of its old heritage in exchange for new traditions in the process.  For example, the city gained the Moscow Metro, unique in both its beauty and its functionality.  During the World War II era, Moscow was once again the frontline of defense during the Battle of Moscow. 

The new millennium has brought with it numerous difficult and contentious transformations and changes for the city.  However, present day Moscow continues to serve as a symbol of our country, combining a heroic past with a great future. 

 

Moscow’s History in a Nutshell

 

1147 – First mention of Moscow in the chronicles, considered the date of Moscow’s foundation by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky (Long-armed).

1276  – Independent Moscow Principality founded. First Moscow Prince – Daniil Aleksandrovich.

1328 – Moscow’s Prince Ivan Kalita (Moneybag) turns Grand Prince, with Moscow turning into the main city of the Russian land.

1485-1495 – The Kremlin takes its modern shape.

1547 – For the first time in Rus, Moscow’s Grand Price Ivan IV (the Terrible) assumes the title of tsar.

1554-1560 – St. Basil’s Cathedral built in Moscow.

1612 – Minin and Pozharsky lead the people's volunteer corps that liberates Moscow from Polish interventionists.

1686 – The Slavic Greek Latin Academy founded – the first higher education institution in Russia with access for all estates and classes.

1713 – Peter I (the Great) moves capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg.

1730 – The image of St. George the Victorious used in Moscow’s armory.

1755 – Moscow University founded.

1812 – Patriotic War of 1812. Fire in Moscow.

1892 – The Brothers Tretyakov donate an arts gallery to Moscow.

1912 – The Museum of Fine Arts (A. Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts) opened.

1918 – Moscow regains the status of capital.

1935 – The Moscow Metro opened.

1939 – The All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (VDNKH from 1959, VVTs from 1992).

1941 – Nazi German troops defeated at Moscow.

1945 – The Victory Parade held in Red Square.

1952 – The construction of “Stalin’s” high-risers completed.

1965 – Moscow awarded the title of Hero City.

1980 – The 22nd Summer Olympic Games held in Moscow.

1985 – Arbat turned into a pedestrian tourist street.

1997– Moscow’s 850th anniversary celebrated.

2000 – The Cathedral of Christ the Savior inaugurated.

2011 – Draft Plan for Moscow Development adopted with provisions for joining new territories to Moscow.