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Will appear in Moscow street Kuindzhi and Bilibin20 December 2016Will appear in Moscow street Kuindzhi and Bilibin

This will happen in 2017

There are support floating bridge in the Park "Zaryadye"20 December 2016There are support floating bridge in the Park "Zaryadye"

The bridge will connect the Park and the promenade will be a unique viewing platform.

In honor of the composer Balakirev19 December 2016In honor of the composer Balakirev

Call one of the capital's squares

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Address:Kremlin
Location:Show on map
Website:www.kreml.ru
Telephone:+7 (495) 695-41-46
To gain entrance to the Kremlin in earlier times, drawbridges were used which were protected by bridgehead towers. Seeing inside the towers is not permitted, but their appearance alone is amazing.
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In detail


Spasskaya, the Kremlin's Central Tower Its gates were designed for ceremonial processions, and tsars and foreign envoys passed through them. At present, Borovitskaya Tower is the only tower used by the country's leadership and through which vehicle traffic-is permitted; it was previously used by visitors to the commercial areas of the Kremlin.


Troitskaya, the Third Transit Tower This tower is currently used by visitors and tourists. More precisely, visitors first have to climb Kutafyu Tower and from there cross a bridge to the Kremlin. There are other gates in Nikolskaya Tower. The remaining fifteen towers are not for transit, except those that have secret river exits. Tainitskaya Tower is one of them.


Many towers have nondescript names, which is why most have at least two of them; as one became obsolete, another took its place. The record holder is Troitskaya Tower, which has at various times had five different names: Troitskaya, Bogoyavlenskaya, Rizpolozhenskaya, Znamenskaya, and Kuretnaya.


Just what do the names of the Kremlin's towers mean? For example, some are named after the buildings adjacent to them: Arsenalnaya Tower, Senatskaya Tower, and others describe the function of the tower: A water lifting system was installed in Vodovzvodnoaya Tower which allowed the Kremlin's gardens to be irrigated.


Unfortunately, tourists are not permitted to see inside the towers, though many would probably like to glance inside at least one of them to see how they are outfitted and to feel like one of Moscow's ancient sentinels for a moment and survey the surroundings from its heights.


If one pays close attention to the Kremlin's walls and towers, one may notice many interesting details. For example, only angular towers have a round base, while the rest are rectangular. And one of them has no foundation at all. This is the small Tsarskaya Tower. It would seem that in this case, the tower's name is more likely to deceive than inform, as historians believe that, contrary to legend, the tsars did not sit in its shade looking at the Red Square. The tower housed the fire department's bells. The name was most likely acquired due to its appearance, which looks something like the Imperial Throne as found in Russian fairy tales


Routes
The Red Square
Around the Kremlin with children

In the old times the square was an important element of protection of the Kremlin – this is how Moscow’ s main fortress is called. It was easier to fight enemy in an open space while in the time of peace it was a convenient place for trade. The square was called Veliky Torg (Great Auction) or Pozhar (Fire). In the old Russian language the word “ red” meant “ beautiful” or “ main”. Until now Red Square has remained as the main and the most beautiful square in the city of Moscow.

A monument to K. Minin and D. Pozharsky that is located right in front of St. Basil’ s Cathedral depicts two heroes who liberated Moscow from Polish invaders. Built on public donations in 1818, it is the oldest sculptural monument to be unveiled in Moscow. Its original place was next to the Upper Trade Rows, however, it was moved to its today’ s location in the 1930s to allow military weaponry parades.


To your right is the oldest tower of the Moscow Kremlin called the Savior Tower. Altogether 20 towers stand along the Kremlin wall. The existing walls and towers were constructed in 1485 – 1495. The overall length of the walls is 2,235 meters, their height is from 5 to 20 meters with the width ranging between 3.5 to 6.5 meters. The walls are decorated with 1,045 battlements of the swallow tail shape.
 
The Spasskaya (Savior) Tower was erected in 1491 by an Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari, the builder of the Kremlin’ s Palace of Facets. Initially, it was named the Frolovskaya Tower. Later, the tower was crowned with a tall hipped roof and the icon of Spas Nerukotvorny (Devine Savior) was placed above the gate, which had given the name to the tower. It was then that an English clockmaker Christopher Galloway installed a one-handed clock on the tower. The single hand stood still while the clock-face was rotating. In the course of time the tower clock was replaced several times. The present day clock is over a hundred years of age. It is really huge: the hour-hand alone is 3 meters long. 

Take a walk downhill along Vassilyevsky Spusk (St. Basil’ s Descent) towards the Moskva River embankment. In the 1930s a city quarter located here was removed to open access to new Moskvoretsky (Moskva River) Bridge.
 
Turn to the right into the Kremlyovskaya (Kremlin) Embankment. The fifth tower on your way is the Taynitskaya Tower. The year of 1485 when the foundation stone of this tower was laid is considered to mark the commencement of the Moscow Kremlin’ s renovation. The tower’ s builder Anton Fryazin was the first to use red brick for construction of a fortress. Until 1917 every midday a signaling canon would fire from the barbican. Thus Muscovites could tell time. In 1930 – 1933 the barbican was dismantled, the secret well was backfilled and the entry gate was filled with brick.
 
You are passing by the Vodovzvodnaya (Water-lifting) Tower. It was here that Christopher Galloway mentioned above built the first water delivery system. The water was pumped from the tower to tzar’ s palaces. Lower down the flow of the river one could find so called “ pant-washing” rafts used by washwomen to do the laundry from the Kremlin. In 1937 a red ruby star was installed of top of the tower.

Ahead of us is Big Stone Bridge. A wooden raft bridge which had been here from times immemorial was replaced with a bridge made of stone in the end of the XVII century. It was the first stone bridge across the Moskva River 170 meters long and 22 meters wide. Being known among other wonders of Moscow alongside the Tzar Canon and the Sukharevskaya Tower, it had given its name to the saying “ More than a stone bridge” meaning that something cost an outrageous amount of money. The present day bridge was constructed in the 1930s with the length of about 500 and the width of 40 meters.
 
As you turn to the right passing by the Lower Alexandrovsky Garden, you would come to the Borovitskaya Tower. According to the legend, its name was derived from a coniferous forest (bor) that grew on the Kremlin hill. 
 
To the left you can clearly see one of the most beautiful buildings in Moscow – famous Pashkov House. It was erected in the 1780s for captain-lieutenant P. Pashkov, the son of Peter the Great’ s batman. The building was allegedly designed by a prominent Russian architect Vassily Bazhenov.
 
The edifice tops the steep Vagankovsky Hill. The grand entrance to the manor premises are from the bystreet on the opposite side of the main faсade. In times of old a vast garden was planted in front of the building on the slope of the hill with fountains playing along the fencing. For the past one hundred and fifty years Pashkov House has accommodated a library formerly called Rumyantsevskaya. Its present-day name is the Russian State Library – the country’ s largest collection of printed matter.

Meanwhile, you walk down towards the Middle Alexandrovsky Garden. The garden was planted here in the place of the Neglinka riverbed put in a tube in the beginning of the 1820s. Ahead of you is Trinity Bridge which leads the way inside the Kremlin. Erected in 1516, the bridge was reconstructed time and again. In old days it spanned the Neglinka River, at present the alley of the Alexandrovsky Garden lies underneath it. Both ends of the bridge are marked by towers – the Trinity and the Kutafya. The Trinity Tower is the tallest one of all the Moscow Kremlin towers with the height of 79.3 meters. The name of the other tower – Kutafya – must have been derived from an old-Russian word “ kutafya” meaning a clumsy woman. The ticket offices of the Moscow Kremlin are located nearby.

The Upper Alexandrovsky Garden starts right after Trinity Bridge. This part of the garden accommodates the memorial of military glory with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and Eternal Flame. Lining the walkway are dark red porphyry blocks with encapsulated soils of the hero cities. It is here by the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier that Post No. 1 of the Guard of Honor of the Kremlin Regiment is to be found. Changing of the Guard Ceremony takes place every hour.

From the Alexandrovsky Garden you can clearly see the beautiful edifice of the Manege. It was built in 1817 by a Spanish architect Agustin de Betancourt on the order of the emperor Alexander I to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the victory over Napoleon. Contemporaries were astonished with the Manege’ s internal design. The roof spanned a huge space without a single internal support. The structure was used first for military parades but as of 1831 various exhibitions, ballroom parties and sports competitions had been held here. The present-day Manege is an exhibition hall.
 
In front of the Manege is Manege Square. It appeared here no so long ago. Before the 1930s there was a city district in the place of the square with shops, hotels and apartment houses. The present day Manege Square accommodates an underground trade centre with shops and numerous cafes offering a good opportunity for snack and rest.
 
Alongside the trade centre runs an artificial riverbed imitating the watercourse of the tubed Neglinka with numbers of fountains and sculptures depicting characters of Russian fairy tales.

So, here we are back at the Historical Museum. Don’ t forget to take a careful look at the fence and the grating of the main entrance to the Alexandrovsky Garden. To your left towers the colossus of the Hotel Moskva.

Under the building of the hotel you can find the Moscow Archeology Museum. It displays piers of Voskresensky (Resurrection) Bridge built across the Neglinka River in the XVI – XVII centuries as well as old buried treasures, household utensils including a three hundred year old child’ s boot and a… torn sock. Children are fond of such exhibits. All the objects on display in the museum were found during the excavation in the center of Moscow. On weekends children can take part in various quiz games and contests organized at the museum.
 
You are back at the Okhotny Ryad Metro Station. This is where we started our walking tour and this is where it may be finished.







Around the Kremlin

The best place to start this walk is from Okhotny Ryad Metro Station. As you enter Manege Square, you can see the buildings of the State Historical Museum and the Iberian (Resurrection) Gate.

Mustering tourists toss coins over their shoulders trying to land them in the Kilometre Zero sign – a circle with a multi-pointed star ingrained into the stone pavement. The new belief has it that hitting the center of the sign would make one’ s dreams come true. Just keep in mind that the actual distance count starts from a different place. The true zero kilometre is located at the Main Post Office in Myasnitskaya Street.

In 1995 the monument to the best-known Russian Marshall Zhukov was unveiled in front of the State Historical Museum erected here more than a hundred and fifty years ago. The Zemsky Prikaz (municipal authority) had stood here to be replaced by the Main Pharmacy. It was in the building of the Zemsky Prikaz that the Moscow University was first open in 1755.
 
In Peter I times the building of the Austeria saloon was added to the Zemsky Prikaz where a customer reading Moscow Journal (the first Russian newspaper) was offered a free drink. Thus, the tzar imposed newspaper reading in Russia.
The Resurrection Gate is much older than the Historical Museum. It had received its name from the Monastery of Resurrection located nearby.
The gate was built as the main entrance into Kitai-gorod, the second fortress built in Moscow after the Kremlin. In the 1930s the gate was demolished to be restored to the ancient drafts a few years ago. The Chapel of the Iberian Icon of Our Lady stands nearby. The gate’ s second name Iberian is attributed to the chapel.
 
To the left stands the branch of the State Historical Museum. This building used to house the Moscow City Duma (municipal parliament) between 1892 and 1917 and the Lenin Museum from 1924 till 1993.
Through the arch of the Iberian Gate you enter Red Square. Its name was derived from the Old-Russian word “ red” meaning “ main”, “ beautiful”.

On the left you can see Kazan Cathedral which was built as a monument commemorating the liberation of Moscow from Polish invaders in 1612. The cathedral was rebuilt in 1993.
The building behind the cathedral is occupied by the Upper Trade Rows (GUM). It was erected more than one hundred years ago. Red Square had always been the venue of trade, thus its other name was Veliky Torg (Great Auction). GUM means not only numerous shops and cafes but also remarkable architecture. A skating-rink is set up in front of GUM every winter.
 
The opposite side of the square is dominated by the Cathedral of the Protection of Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat. Its name reminds of the stank dug out in the old times along the Kremlin wall where the Lenin’ s Tomb is presently located. After the great fire of 1812 the moat was filled during the reconstruction of the square to the design of Joseph (Osip) Bove. Most people refer to the cathedral as St. Basil’ s due to the name of one of its aisles. The cathedral was constructed on the order of the Russian tzar Ivan the Terrible in commemoration of his victories. The Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage site. At present it accommodates a museum which is worth visiting.

To your left is Lobnoye Mesto (Forehead Place, Place of Skulls). From this platform the tzars addressed muscovites, as well as “ ukases” (tzar’ s decrees) were announced.
 
In front of St. Basil’ s Cathedral stands the monument to the liberators of Moscow in 1612 – K. Minin and D. Pozharsky. It is the oldest sculptural monument in Moscow unveiled in 1818. The money for its construction was raised throughout the whole of Russia. Its original place was by the Upper Trade Rows, however in 1931 the monument was moved to a new location in order not to impede parades. The parades also caused the demolition of the Iberian Gate.

To the left is the most famous Kremlin tower – the Spasskaya (Savior) Tower. It was raised in 1491 by the Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari, also known as the builder of the Kremlin Palace of Facets. Under the reign of the tzar Mikhail Fyodorovich, the tower was crowned with a tall hipped roof, and the icon of Spas Nerukotvorny (Devine Savior) was placed above the gate giving the name to the tower. One of the tower’ s attires is the famous clock crafted by the English clockmaker Christopher Galloway. The clock is over a century old. It is huge: the hour hand alone is three meters. The very first clock was installed on the tower already in the XVI century.

Take a walk downhill along Vassilyevsky Spusk (St. Basil’ s Descent) towards the Moskva River embankment.
 
The place is well-known among young Russians. Pop music shows are frequently staged here. The square appeared together with the construction of Big Moskvoretzky (Moskva River) Bridge. The bridge railing is adorned with images of the city’ s Soviet period coat of arms – a five-pointed star, a sickle, a hammer and the Freedom Obelisk. In 1993 the city has retrieved its original emblem with St. George the Victorious.

Turn to the right into the Kremlyovskaya (Kremlin) Embankment and take a walk along the wall of the ancient fortification.
 
Ahead is Big Stone Bridge. A wooden raft bridge which had been here from times immemorial was replaced with a bridge made of stone in the end of the XVII century. It was the first stone bridge across the Moskva River 170 meters long and 22 meters wide. The bridge had undergone several reconstructions. The present day bridge was erected in the 1930s with the length of 500 and the width of 40 meters.
 
At the corner tower called Vodovzvodnaya (Water Lifting Tower), turn right passing the Lower Alexandrovsky Garden towards the Borovitskaya Tower. According to the legend, its name was derived from a thick forest (bor) that grew on the Kremlin hill. The tower’ s gate opens the way inside the Kremlin for cars and pedestrian visitors of the Armory Chamber.
 
To the left you can clearly see famous Pashkov House. It was erected in the 1780s allegedly as per the design of the architect V. Bazhenov for captain-lieutenant P. Pashkov, who was the son of Peter the Great’ s batman. The edifice tops the steep Vagankovsky Hill. The grand entrance to the manor premises is from the Side-Street on the opposite side of the main faзade. For more than one hundred and fifty years the building has been occupied by a library – formerly Rumyantzev, with the present-day name of the Russian State Library. It was from the balustrade of this “ most beautiful Moscow edifice”, Pashkov House that Voland and Azazello gazed at the city of Moscow as described in the famous “ The Master and Margarita” novel by M. Bulgakov. Among the young this novel is one of the best read Soviet classics.

Proceed towards the Middle Alexandrovsky Garden. The garden was planted along the Kremlin wall in the 1820s on top of the Neglinka River, confined to a tube. It was here that Bulgakov’ s Margarita first met Azazello. On a warm day, the garden is full of youngsters, parents with kids and romantic couples.

Straight ahead is Troitsky (Trinity) Bridge, the oldest in Moscow. It leads to the Kremlin Troitskaya (Trinity) Tower. The bridge was erected in 1516 and was reconstructed on repeated occasions. Originally, it spanned the Neglinka River until it was put in a tube. Now the alley of the Alexandrovsky Garden runs underneath.
 
Trinity Bridge marks the beginning of the Upper Alexandrovsky Garden. As a reminder of the war with Napoleon the “ Ruins” Grotto was constructed here with the use of debris of houses destroyed during the invasion. A monument in a shape of an obelisk with Communism philosophers’ names stands opposite the grotto. This part of the garden accommodates the memorial of military glory with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the Eternal Flame. It is here by the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier that Post No.1 of the Guard of Honor of the Kremlin Regiment is to be found. Changing of the Guard Ceremony takes place every hour.

The Alexandrovsky Garden offers a good view of the Manege, the structure erected by a Spanish architect Agustin de Betancourt on the order of the emperor Alexander I to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the victory over Napoleon. Contemporaries were astonished with the Manege’ s internal design. The roof spanned a huge space without a single internal support. Originally, the structure was used for military parades, but as of 1831 various exhibitions, ballroom parties and sports competitions had been held here. The present-day Manege is an exhibition hall.

In the 1990s an underground shopping center was built under Manege Square. Apart from numerous shops the place is full of various cafes offering a chance for snack and rest.
 
Alongside the trade centre, from the Alexandrovsky Garden, runs an artificial riverbed imitating the watercourse of the tubed Neglinka with numbers of fountains used by youngsters for a plunge on a hot summer day.

So, here we are back at the Historical Museum. Don’ t forget to take a careful look at the fence and the grating of the main entrance to the Alexandrovsky Garden. To your left towers the colossus of the Moskva Hotel. The building was erected in several stages. Stage 1 was accomplished in 1935 to the design of the architect A. Schusev. For many years the hotel was one of Moscow’ s brands. Not so long ago the old structure was demolished and replaced with a new building similar to the original.

Under the building of the hotel you can find the Moscow Archeology Museum. Its entrance is right opposite the Iberian Gate. It displays the piers of Voskresensky (Resurrection) Bridge built across the Neglinka River in the XVI – XVII centuries as well as old buried treasures and household utensils. All the objects on display in the museum were found during the excavation in the center of Moscow.
 
So, here we are back at Okhotny Ryad Metro Station – the starting and the terminal point of our tour.